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شنبه 29 مرداد‌ماه سال 1384

Determiners: Each, Every

Each and every have similar but not always identical meanings.

Each = every one separately
Every = each, all


Sometimes, each and every have the same meaning:

  • Prices go up each year.
  • Prices go up every year.

But often they are not exactly the same.

Each expresses the idea of 'one by one'. It emphasizes individuality.

Every is half-way between each and all. It sees things or people as singular, but in a group or in general.

Consider the following:

  • Every artist is sensitive.
  • Each artist sees things differently.
  • Every soldier saluted as the President arrived.
  • The President gave each soldier a medal.

Each can be used in front of the verb:

  • The soldiers each received a medal.

Each can be followed by 'of':

  • The President spoke to each of the soldiers.
  • He gave a medal to each of them.

Every cannot be used for 2 things. For 2 things, each can be used:

  • He was carrying a suitcase in each hand.

Every is used to say how often something happens:

  • There is a plane to Bangkok every day.
  • The bus leaves every hour.

 

llee.blogsky.com tip

Verbs with each and every are always conjugated in the singular.

 


پنج‌شنبه 27 مرداد‌ماه سال 1384

Any

Some = a little, a few or a small number or amount

Any = one, some or all

Usually, we use some in positive (+) sentences and any in negative (-) and question (?) sentences.

 

some

any

example

+

I have some money.

 

I have $10.

-

 

I don't have any money.

I don't have $1 and I don't have $10 and I don't have $1,000,000. I have $0.

?

 

Do you have any money?

Do you have $1 or $10 or $1,000,000?

 

llee.blogsky.com tip

In general, we use something/anything and somebody/anybody in the same way as some/any.

Look at these examples:

  • He needs some stamps.
  • I must go. I have some homework to do.
  • I'm thirsty. I want something to drink.
  • I can see somebody coming.
  • He doesn't need any stamps.
  • I can stay. I don't have any homework to do.
  • I'm not thirsty. I don't want anything to drink.
  • I can't see anybody coming.
  • Does he need any stamps?
  • Do you have any homework to do?
  • Do you want anything to drink?
  • Can you see anybody coming?

We use any in a positive sentence when the real sense is negative.

  • I refused to give them any money. (I did not give them any money)
  • She finished the test without any difficulty. (she did not have any difficulty)

Sometimes we use some in a question, when we expect a positive YES answer. (We could say that it is not a real question, because we think we know the answer already.)

  • Would you like some more tea?
  • Could I have some sugar, please?

 


دوشنبه 17 مرداد‌ماه سال 1384

اصطلاحات و سختی در یادگیری آنها:

 

یادگیری اکثر اصطلاحات کمی دشوار می باشد چون معنی آنها آنچه که به نظر میرسند نمی باشند. بعضی از آنها آسان هستند و بعضی از آنها هم دشوار. امروز به یادگیری بعضی از اصطلاحات می پردازیم:

Idioms are difficult to understand because their meaning is not what it appears to be at first sight. Some are easier to guess when they have some association with the original meaning of the individual words.

Thus, the meaning of once in a blue moon is not too difficult to guess. Blue moons do not appear in the sky very frequently so we may guess (correctly) that this means very rarely.

معنی اصطلاح  once in a blue moon را خیلی به آسانی می توان فهمید. چون آسمان آبی در آسمان به ندرت دیده میشود،معنی اصطلاح نادر بودن می با شد.

But what about on cloud nine as in:

اما در مورد اصطلاح on cloud nine  را چگونه باید فهمید؟

  • She was on cloud nine.

What does this mean? There are no clues here.

بعضی وقتها می توان معنی این اصطلاحات را در جملات تشخیص داد. اما به هر حال باید معانی این اصطلاحات را در یک دیکشنری معتبر چک کنید.

Sometimes the context will help us to understand the meaning:

  • Charlotte had just been offered a job with a modelling agency when I saw her, so, of course, she was on cloud nine.

However, to be quite sure, we may need to check the meaning in a good dictionary or idioms reference book.

اصطلاحات دیگر را امتحان کنید.

Every cloud has a silver lining.


Let’s try to understand the meaning of this idiom or proverb.

Literally, it is clearly not the case that every cloud has a silvery edge or a silver lining. But think of dark clouds behind which the sun is hidden. As a cloud comes out from behind the dark clouds into a bright blue sky, it is edged with a silvery lining.

Thus we are moving from relative darkness into bright light and the meaning of the idiom becomes clear, i.e. even if things look very bad, there must be some good outcome as well.

Here are some other informal expressions involving clouds or sky.

Over the moon / On cloud nine: if you are over the moon or on cloud nine, you are both happy and excited.

Blue skies: a very informal and rather unusual way of ending a letter. It means 'I hope all will go well for you in the future' or 'I hope the sun will shine for you'.

To have one's head in the clouds: to be out of touch with reality; to be a dreamer or an idealist; to be too concerned with your own hopes and ideals.

Pie in the sky: something which is promised or planned but is most unlikely to happen.

A cloud on the horizon: some sort of threat or bad thing which may happen sooner or later.

Under a cloud: if you are under a cloud, people have a poor or unfavourable opinion of you.

Look at the following examples and see if you can think up other sentences using these idioms.

  • When he heard that he had won the lottery, he was over the moon.
  • Emma passed her exam last week so she is on cloud nine. I have never seen her so happy.
  • With all my good wishes for a speedy recovery.
    Blue skies,
    Judith.
  • He may be a idealist, but you couldn’t accuse him of having his head in the clouds all the time!
  • When the government says that next year there will be no waiting lists for hospital treatment, we all know that is pie in the sky.
  • My company is doing well at the moment, but the international economic recession is a real cloud on the horizon.
  • After he caused the accident, Peter was under a cloud for several weeks.

 

 

 


سه‌شنبه 4 مرداد‌ماه سال 1384

با چند اصطلاح سودمند و پر استفاده در مکالمات تلفنی آشنا شوید:

Here are some typical phrases that you can use in a telephone conversation.

Answering the phone

 

 

چواب دادن تلفن

 

  • Hello? (informal)
  • Thank you for calling Boyz Autobody. Jody speaking. How can I help you?
  • Doctor's office.

Introducing yourself

 

 

معرفی کردن خود

  • Hey George. It's Lisa calling. (informal)
  • Hello, this is Julie Madison calling.
  • Hi, it's Gerry from the dentist's office here.
  • This is she.*
  • Speaking.*

*The person answering says this if the caller does not recognize their voice.

Asking to speak with

 Someone

 

درخواست صحبت با کسی

  • Is Fred in? (informal)
  • Is Jackson there, please? (informal)
  • Can I talk to your sister? (informal)
  • May I speak with Mr. Green, please?
  • Would the doctor be in/available?

Connecting someone

 

 

با کسی مرتبط شدن

  • Just a sec. I'll get him. (informal)
  • Hang on one second. (informal)
  • Please hold and I'll put you through to his office.
  • One moment please.
  • All of our operators are busy at this time. Please hold for the next available person.

Making special requests

 

درخواست های ویژه

  • Could you please repeat that?
  • Would you mind spelling that for me?
  • Could you speak up a little please?
  • Can you speak a little slower please. My English isn't very strong.
  • Can you call me back? I think we have a bad connection.
  • Can you please hold for a minute? I have another call.

Taking a message for someone

 

از کسی پیغامی گرفتن

 

  • Sammy's not in. Who's this? (informal)
  • I'm sorry, Lisa's not here at the moment. Can I ask who's calling?
  • I'm afraid he's stepped out. Would you like to leave a message?
  • He's on lunch right now.Who's calling please?
  • He's busy right now. Can you call again later?
  • I'll let him know you called.
  • I'll make sure she gets the message.

Leaving a message with someone

 

پیغام گذاشتن

  • Yes, can you tell him his wife called, please.
  • No, that's okay, I'll call back later.
  • Yes, it's James from CompInc. here. When do you expect her back in the office?
  • Thanks, could you ask him to call Brian when he gets in?
  • Do you have a pen handy. I don't think he has my number.
  • Thanks. My number is 222-3456, extension 12.

Confirming information

 

تثبیت کردن اطلاعات

 

  • Okay, I've got it all down.
  • Let me repeat that just to make sure.
  • Did you say 555 Charles St.?
  • You said your name was John, right?
  • I'll make sure he gets the message.

Listening to an answering machine

 

به پیغام گیر گوش دادن

 

  • Hello. You've reached 222-6789. Please leave a detailed message after the beep.Thank you.
  • Hi, this is Elizabeth. I'm sorry I'm not available to take your call at this time. Leave me a message and I'll get back to you as soon as I can.
  • Thank you for calling Dr. Mindin's office. Our hours are 9am-5pm, Monday-Friday. Please call back during these hours, or leave a message after the tone. If this is an emergency please call the hospital at 333-7896.

Leaving a message on an answering machine

 

پیغام در پیغام گیر گذاشتن

  • Hey Mikako. It's Yuka. Call me! (informal)
  • Hello, this is Ricardo calling for Luke. Could you please return my call as soon as possible. My number is 334-5689. Thank you.
  • Hello Maxwell. This is Marina from the doctor's office calling. I just wanted to let you know that you're due for a check-up this month. Please give us a ring/buzz whenever it's convenient.

Finishing a conversation

 

به اتمام رساندن مکالمه

 

  • Well, I guess I better get going. Talk to you soon.
  • Thanks for calling. Bye for now.
  • I have to let you go now.
  • I have another call coming through. I better run.
  • I'm afraid that's my other line.
  • I'll talk to you again soon. Bye.

 

llee.blogsky.com tip

Sometimes it is necessary to spell something over the telephone (for example a postal code or name). Native English speakers often use a special alphabet when they spell over the phone. Example: postal code B2V 3A8 = B as in Bravo, 2, V as in Victor, 3, A as in Alpha, 8.

 


دوشنبه 3 مرداد‌ماه سال 1384

Telephone Terms

در اینجا با کلمات پایه ای در مورد تلفن آشنا میشوید

Here are some of the words and terms that we use to talk about telephoning.

answer

to say "hello" into the phone when it rings

answering machine

something that you can record a message on if the person you are calling isn't home

busy signal

a beeping sound that tells the caller that the other person is already on the phone with someone else

call

a telephone conversation; to telephone

caller

the person who telephones

call back/phone back

to call someone who called you first

call display

a screen that shows you who is calling

cellular phone/cell phone

a telephone that you can take with you away from your house; mobile phone

cordless phone

a phone that is not attached to the wall (you can walk short distances with it at home or in the garden)

dial

to press the buttons on the phone

dial tone

the sound the phone makes when you pick it up

directory/phone book

a book that alphabetically lists local phone numbers of people and businesses

hang up

to put the receiver down and end a call

operator

a person who answers telephone-related questions when you dial "0"

pager

a small machine you wear that makes a noise (or vibrates) when someone wants you to call them

phone

a telephone; to telephone

phone booth/pay phone

a place where you can pay to use a telephone in public

pick up

to answer the phone

receiver

the piece on the phone that you speak into and listen from

ring

the sound a phone makes when somebody calls; to make that sound

ringer

the sound-piece that alerts a person that a call is coming through

 


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